A. Atala

Selective cell growth and novel biomaterials have led to the engineering of tissues and organs that may be used to restore and maintain normal function. Cells for tissue reconstitution can be derived from the native organ to be replaced, thus avoiding rejection. In situations where normal native tissues are not available, different stem cell sources may be explored. In addition, recent advances in the field of cloning have made it possible to retrieve cells using nuclear transfer techniques. Regenerative medicine techniques been applied experimentally and clinically for the reconstitution of several tissues and organs. Recent progress suggests that other engineered tissues and organs created experimentally will also have clinical applicability.