Ending Aging

If you are looking for an accessible description of SENS research, our Chief Science Officer, Dr Aubrey de Grey, together with co-author Michael Rae, has written a book entitled Ending Aging. The book speaks to a broad audience, but it does so without 'dumbing down' the science at all. It is the ideal resource for either the biologist or the non-biologist, whether encountering SENS for the first time or wishing to absorb more of its details. Copies are available from your local bookstore or from Amazon.com. The details are: de Grey ADNJ, Rae M. Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs That Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 2007, 416pp, hardcover, ISBN 0-312-36706-6; or there is a paperback edition with an additional chapter covering more recent developments, ISBN 0-312-36707-4.


The following is a non-exhaustive list of citations for papers relevant to the engineering solution to age-related diseases. This library specifically includes all papers referenced in Ending Aging, and all publications by our Chief Science Officer and his team, plus other works of particular merit.

  1. Adler AS, Sinha S, Kawahara TL, Zhang JY, Segal E, Chang HY. Motif module map reveals enforcement of aging by continual NF-kappaB activity. Genes Dev 2007;21(24):3244-3257. PubMed: 18055696.
  2. Alvarez-Dolado M, Pardal R, Garcia-Verdugo JM,Fike JR, Lee HO, Pfeffer K, Lois C, Morrison SJ, Alvarez-Buylla A. Fusion of bone-marrow-derived cells with Purkinje neurons, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes. Nature 2003;425(6961):968-973. PubMed: 14555960. Categories: RepleniSENS
  3. Anderson MM, Requena JR, Crowley JR, Thorpe SR, Heinecke JW. The myeloperoxidase system of human phagocytes generates Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine on proteins: a mechanism for producing advanced glycation end products at sites of inflammation. J Clin Invest 1999;104(1):103-113. PubMed: 10393704. Categories: GlycoSENS
  4. Andrews LD, Brizzee KR. Lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelium of rhesus monkey: lack of diminution with centrophenoxine treatment. Neurobiol Aging 1986;7(2):107-113. PubMed: 3083280. Categories: LysoSENS
  5. Asif M, Egan J, Vasan S, Masurekar MR, Lopez S, Williams C, Torres RL, Wagle D, Ulrich P, Cerami A, Brines M, Regan TJ. An advanced glycation endproduct cross-link breaker can reverse age-related increases in myocardial stiffness. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97(6):2809-2813. PubMed: 10706607. Categories: GlycoSENS
  6. Assmus B, Honold J, Schachinger V, Britten MB, Fischer-Rasokat U, Lehmann R, Teupe C, Pistorius K, Martin H, Abolmaali ND, Tonn T, Dimmeler S, Zeiher AM. Transcoronary transplantation of progenitor cells after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2006;355(12):1222-1232. PubMed: 16990385. Categories: RepleniSENS
  7. Atala A. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: concepts for clinical application. Rejuvenation Res 2004;7(1):15-31. PubMed: 15256042. Categories: RepleniSENS
  8. Badman MK, Pryce RA, Charge SB, Morris JF, Clark A. Fibrillar islet amyloid polypeptide (amylin) is internalised by macrophages but resists proteolytic degradation. Cell Tissue Res 1998;291(2):285-294. PubMed: 9426315. Categories: AmyloSENS
  9. Bahar R, Hartmann CH, Rodriguez KA, Denny AD, Busuttil RA, Dolle ME, Calder RB, Chisholm GB, Pollock BH, Klein CA, Vijg J. Increased cell-to-cell variation in gene expression in ageing mouse heart. Nature 2006;441(7096):1011-1014. PubMed: 16791200. Categories: OncoSENS
  10. Baker DJ, Wijshake T, Tchkonia T, LeBrasseur NK, Childs BG, van de Sluis B, Kirkland JL, van Deursen JM. Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive senescent cells delays ageing-associated disorders. Nature. 2011 Nov 2;479(7372):232-6. PubMed: 22048312. Categories: ApoptoSENS
  11. Bakris GL, Bank AJ, Kass DA, Neutel JM, Preston RA, Oparil S. Advanced glycation end-product cross-link breakers. A novel approach to cardiovascular pathologies related to the aging process. Am J Hypertens 2004;17(12 Pt 2):23S-30S. PubMed: 15607432. Categories: GlycoSENS
  12. Balakrishnan K, Andrei-Selmer LC, Selmer T, Bacher M, Dodel R. Comparison of Intravenous Immunoglobulins for Naturally Occurring Autoantibodies against Amyloid-beta. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Feb 17. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed: 20164596. Categories: AmyloSENS
  13. Balsam LB, Wagers AJ, Christensen JL, Kofidis T, Weissman IL, Robbins RC. Haematopoietic stem cells adopt mature haematopoietic fates in ischaemic myocardium. Nature 2004;428(6983):668-673. PubMed: 15034594. Categories: RepleniSENS
  14. Bandy B, Davison AJ. Mitochondrial mutations may increase oxidative stress: implications for carcinogenesis and aging? Free Radic Biol Med 1990;8(6):523-39. PubMed: 2193852. Categories: MitoSENS
  15. Barberi T, Klivenyi P, Calingasan NY, Lee H, Kawamata H, Loonam K, Perrier AL, Bruses J, Rubio ME, Topf N, Tabar V, Harrison NL, Beal MF, Moore MA, Studer L. Neural subtype specification of fertilization and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and application in parkinsonian mice. Nat Biotechnol 2003;21(10):1200-1207. PubMed: 14502203. Categories: RepleniSENS
  16. Barja G. Rate of generation of oxidative stress-related damage and animal longevity. Free Radic Biol Med 2002;33(9):1167-1172. PubMed: 12398924. Categories: MitoSENS
  17. Barzilai N, Banerjee S, Hawkins M, Chen W, Rossetti L. Caloric restriction reverses hepatic insulin resistance in aging rats by decreasing visceral fat. J Clin Invest 1998;101(7):1353-1361. PubMed: 9525977. Categories: ApoptoSENS
  18. Basu R, Breda E, Oberg AL, Powell CC, Dalla Man C, Basu A, Vittone JL, Klee GG, Arora P, Jensen MD, Toffolo G, Cobelli C, Rizza RA. Mechanisms of the age-associated deterioration in glucose tolerance: contribution of alterations in insulin secretion, action, and clearance. Diabetes 2003;52(7):1738-1748. PubMed: 12829641.
  19. Bates RC, Stith BJ, Stevens KE. Chronic central administration of valproic acid: Increased pro-survival phospho-proteins and growth cone associated proteins with no behavioral pathology. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2012;103(2):237-44. PubMed: 22960225.
  20. Beisswenger BG, Delucia EM, Lapoint N, Sanford RJ, Beisswenger PJ. Ketosis leads to increased methylglyoxal production on the Atkins diet. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005;1043:201-210. PubMed: 16037240. Categories: GlycoSENS
  21. Ben-Hur T, Idelson M, Khaner H, Pera M, Reinhartz E, Itzik A, Reubinoff BE. Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors improves behavioral deficit in Parkinsonian rats. Stem Cells 2004;22(7):1246-1255. PubMed: 15579643. Categories: RepleniSENS
  22. Benenson Y, Gil B, Ben-Dor U, Adar R, Shapiro E. An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression. Nature 2004;429(6990):423-429. PubMed: 15116117.
  23. Bennett-Baker PE, Wilkowski J, Burke DT. Age-associated activation of epigenetically repressed genes in the mouse. Genetics 2003;165(4):2055-2062. PubMed: 14704185. Categories: OncoSENS
  24. Bielas JH, Loeb LA. Mutator phenotype in cancer: timing and perspectives. Environ Mol Mutagen 2005;45(2-3):206-213. PubMed: 15672382. Categories: OncoSENS
  25. Biemel KM, Friedl DA, Lederer MO. Identification and quantification of major maillard cross-links in human serum albumin and lens protein. Evidence for glucosepane as the dominant compound. J Biol Chem 2002;277(28):24907-24915. PubMed: 11978796. Categories: GlycoSENS
  26. Billings LM, Oddo S, Green KN, McGaugh JL, LaFerla FM. Intraneuronal Abeta causes the onset of early Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive deficits in transgenic mice. Neuron 2005;45(5):675-688. PubMed: 15748844. Categories: AmyloSENS
  27. Bluher M, Kahn BB, Kahn CR. Extended longevity in mice lacking the insulin receptor in adipose tissue. Science 2003;299(5606):572-574. PubMed: 12543978.
  28. Bollmann FM. The many faces of telomerase: emerging extratelomeric effects. Bioessays. 2008 Aug;30(8):728-32. PubMed: 18623070. Categories: OncoSENS
  29. Bolton WK, Cattran DC, Williams ME, Adler SG, Appel GB, Cartwright K, Foiles PG, Freedman BI, Raskin P, Ratner RE, Spinowitz BS, Whittier FC, Wuerth JP; ACTION I Investigator Group. Randomized trial of an inhibitor of formation of advanced glycation end products in diabetic nephropathy. Am J Nephrol 2004;24(1):32-40. PubMed: 14685005. Categories: GlycoSENS
  30. Bombois S, Maurage CA, Gompel M, Deramecourt V, Mackowiak-Cordoliani MA, Black RS, Lavielle R, Delacourte A, Pasquier F. Absence of beta-amyloid deposits after immunization in Alzheimer disease with Lewy body dementia. Arch Neurol 2007;64(4):583-587. PubMed: 17420322. Categories: AmyloSENS
  31. Bonde S, Zavazava N. Immunogenicity and engraftment of mouse embryonic stem cells in allogeneic recipients. Stem Cells 2006;24(10):2192-2201. PubMed: 16794265. Categories: RepleniSENS
  32. Bonnet C, Kaltimbacher V, Ellouze S, Augustin S, Bénit P, Forster V, Rustin P, Sahel JA, Corral-Debrinski M. Allotopic mRNA localization to the mitochondrial surface rescues respiratory chain defects in fibroblasts harboring mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting complex I or V subunits. Rejuvenation Res 2007;10(2):127-144. PubMed: 17518546. Categories: MitoSENS
  33. Bonnet S, Archer SL, Allalunis-Turner J, Haromy A, Beaulieu C, Thompson R, Lee CT, Lopaschuk GD, Puttagunta L, Bonnet S, Harry G, Hashimoto K, Porter CJ, Andrade MA, Thebaud B, Michelakis ED. A mitochondria-K+ channel axis is suppressed in cancer and its normalization promotes apoptosis and inhibits cancer growth. Cancer Cell 2007;11(1):37-51. PubMed: 17222789.
  34. Boshtam M, Rafiei M, Golshadi ID, Ani M, Shirani Z, Rostamshirazi M. Long term effects of oral vitamin E supplement in type II diabetic patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2005;75(5):341-346. PubMed: 16477766.
  35. Bower CE, Olson JC. Pneumonia and influenza. In: Hofmann M, Hooper MA, eds. Connecticut Women’s Health. 2001; Hartford, CT: Connecticut Department of Public Health, 157-160. PubMed:
  36. Braam B, Verhaar MC, Blankestijn P, Boer WH, Joles JA. Technology insight: Innovative options for end-stage renal disease--from kidney refurbishment to artificial kidney. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 2007;3(10):564-572. PubMed: 17895933.
  37. Brambrink T, Hochedlinger K, Bell G, Jaenisch R. ES cells derived from cloned and fertilized blastocysts are transcriptionally and functionally indistinguishable. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(4):933-938. PubMed: 16418286. Categories: RepleniSENS
  38. Brennan ML, Anderson MM, Shih DM, Qu XD, Wang X, Mehta AC, Lim LL, Shi W, Hazen SL, Jacob JS, Crowley JR, Heinecke JW, Lusis AJ. Increased atherosclerosis in myeloperoxidase-deficient mice. J Clin Invest 2001;107(4):419-430. PubMed: 11181641.
  39. Brindley D, Davie N Regenerative Medicine Through a Crisis: Social Perception and the Financial Reality. Rejuvenation Research 2009, 12(6): 455-461 PubMed: 20041739. Categories: Socioethical
  40. Brindley DA, Barker RW, Lachmann PJ. Health care: Better drug access for terminal patients. Nature 2013;502(7469):38. PubMed: 24091972. Categories: Socioethical
  41. Brindley DA, French A, Suh J, Roberts M, Davies B, Pinedo-Villanueva R, Wartolowska K, Rooke K, Kramm A, Judge A, Morrey M, Chandra A, Hurley H, Grover L, Bingham I, Siegel B, Rattley MS, Buckler RL, McKeon D, Krumholz K, Hook L, May M, Rikabi S, Pigott R, Morys M, Sabokbar A, Titus E, Laabi Y, Lemaitre G, Zahkia R, Sipp D, Horne R, Bravery C, Williams D, Wall I, Snyder EY, Karp JM, Barker RW, Bure K, Carr AJ, Reeve B. The implementation of novel collaborative structures for the identification and resolution of barriers to pluripotent stem cell translation. Stem Cells Dev 2013;22 Suppl 1:63-72. PubMed: 24304079. Categories: Socioethical
  42. Brunk UT, Terman A. The mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of aging: accumulation of damaged mitochondria as a result of imperfect autophagocytosis. Eur J Biochem 2002;269(8):1996-2002. PubMed: 11985575. Categories: LysoSENS, MitoSENS
  43. Burton DG. Cellular senescence, ageing and disease. Age (Dordr). 2009 Mar;31(1):1-9. PubMed: 19234764. Categories: ApoptoSENS
  44. Bussel II, Stupple A, Moody KJ, Lefkowitz DM. Call to action: medical students for regenerative medicine. Rejuvenation Res. 2010 Feb;13(1):1-2. PubMed: 20230272. Categories: Introductions
  45. Butler D, Brown QB, Chin DJ, Batey L, Karim S, Mutneja MS, Karanian DA, Bahr BA. Degradative pathways responding to age-related protein accumulation involve autophagy and lysosomal enzyme activation. Rejuvenation Res 2005;8(4):227-237. PubMed: 16313222. Categories: LysoSENS
  46. Byrne JA, Pedersen DA, Clepper LL, Nelson M, Sanger WG, Gokhale S, Wolf DP, Mitalipov SM. Producing primate embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Nature 2007;450(7169):497-502. PubMed: 18004281.
  47. Byrnes AP. Challenges and future prospects in gene therapy. IDrugs. 2005;8(12):993-996. PubMed: 16320132. Categories: Delivery Mechanisms
  48. Cancello R, Clement K. Is obesity an inflammatory illness? Role of low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in human white adipose tissue. BJOG 2006;113(10):1141-1147. PubMed: 16903845.
  49. Carlson ME, Conboy IM. Loss of stem cell regenerative capacity within aged niches. Aging Cell 2007;6(3):371-382. PubMed: 17381551.
  50. Carlson ME, O’Connor MS, Hsu M, Conboy IM. Notch signaling pathway and tissue engineering. Front Biosci. 2007;12:5143-56. PubMed: 17569636. Categories: RepleniSENS

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